RESEARCH

Literary review for the project Gender, Politics and Media: Challenging Stereotypes, Promoting Diversity, Strengthening Equality
Mervi Pantti

  1. Introduction
    1. Society has changed: Women’s political representation
    2. Gender portrayal has changed - but not enough…
    3. The media has changed – and some are saying, for the worse…
    4. Politics have changed – new style is personal and masculine
  2. Gendered mediation of politicians
    1. Invisible women
    2. Health and education are suitable issues for women
    3. Always married with children
    4. Style over substance
    5. Gendered speech: Men say, women blast
    6. Negative gender distinctions, frames and metaphors
  3. References

REFERENCES

Aday, Sean and James Devitt (2000) Style over Substance. Newspaper Coverage of Female Candidates: Spotlight on Elizabeth Dole.
website

Aldridge, Meryl (2001) Confessional culture, masculinity and emotional work. Journalism 28(1), 91-108.

Aslama, Minna and Johanna Jääsaari (2004) Sillä silmällä. Naiset, populaari politiikka ja mediajulkisuus [Women, Popular Politics and Media Publicity] . Naistutkimus-Kvinnoforskning 4/2004.

Bird, Elizabeth (2000) Audience demands in a murderous market: tabloidization in U.S. In C. Sparks & J. Tulloch (eds.), Tabloid Tales. Global Debates over Media Standards. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Boscagli, Maurizia (1992/1993) A moving story: Masculine tears and the humanity of televised emotions. Discourse 15(2), 64-79.

Braden, Maria (1996). Women politicians and the media. Lexington, KY: The University of Kentucky Press.

Banwart, Mary Christine, Dianne G. Bystrom and Terry Robertson (2003) From the primary to the general election. A comparative analysis of candidate media coverage in mixed-gender 2000 races for Governor and U.S. Senate. American Behavioral Scientist 46(5), 658-676.

Bourdieu, Pierre (1998) On Television and Journalism. London: Pluto Press.

Brikse, Inte (2004) The role of  the mass media in the (re)distribution of power. A comparative report. Report for the project “Mass media in the (re)distribution of power” funded by the European Union in terms of the Community Framework Strategy on Gender Equality (2001-2005).

Bystrom, Dianne G., Terry A. Robertson and Mary C. Banwart (2001) Framing the fight: An analysis of media coverage of female and male candidates in primary races for Governor and U.S. Senate in 2000. American Behavioral Scientist, 44(12), 1999-2013.

Carroll Susan J. and Ronnee Schreiber (1997) Media coverage of women in the 103rd Congress. In P. Norris (Ed.), Women, media and politics (pp.131-148). New York: Oxford University
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CNEL (2003) Donne Lavoro e TV – La rappresentazione femminile nei programmi televisivi [Women, Work and TV – Female Representation in TV Programmes]. CNEL (Consiglio Nazionale dell’Economia e Lavoro). Observatory of Pavia.
website

Corner, John (2003) Mediated persona and political culture. In J. Corner & D. Pels, Media and the Restyling of Politics. London: Sage.

Corner, John and Dick Pels (2003) Media and the Restyling of Politics. London: Sage.

Devitt, James (1999) Framing gender on the campaign trail women’s executive leadership and the Press.
website

Eie, Birgit (1998) Who speaks in television? A comparative study of female participation in television programmes. Oslo: NRK.

Esser, Frank (1999) ’Tabloidisation’ of news. A comparative analysis of Anglo- American and German press journalism. European Journal of Communication (14)3, 291-325.

Estonia (2004) Mass Media in (re)distribution of power. Ministry of Social Affairs of the Republic of Estonia. Report for the project “Mass media in the (re)distribution of power” funded by the EU in terms of the Community Framework Strategy on Gender Equality (2001-2005).
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EU (2005) European Commission: Database on women and men in decision-making.
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Fountaine, Susan and Judy McGregor (2002) Reconstructing gender for the 21st century: News media framing of political. In M. R. Power (ed.), ANZCA 2002: Australian & New Zealand Communication Association 23rd Annual Conference, July 10-12, Coolangatta, Queensland.
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Furedi, Frank (2004) Therapy Culture: Cultivating Vulnerability in an Uncertain Age. London: Routledge

Gallagher, Margaret (2001) Gender Setting: New Agendas for Media Monitoring and Advocacy. London: Zed Books.

Gidengil, Elisabeth and Joanna Everitt (1999) Metaphors and misrepresentation: Gendered mediation in news coverage of the 1993 Canadian leaders’ debates. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 4 (1), 48-65.

Gidengil, Elisabeth and Joanna Everitt (2000) Filtering the female: Television news coverage of the 1993 Canadian leaders' debates. Canadian Journal of Politcal Science, 36(3), 105-131.

Gidengil, Elisabeth and Joanna Everitt (2003) Talking tough: gender and reported speech in campaign news coverage. Political Communication 20, 209-232.

Gitlin, Todd (1979) Prime time ideology: The hegemonic process in television entertainment. Social Problems 26, 251-266.

Glynn, Kevin (2000) Tabloid Culture. Trash Taste, Popular Power, and the transformation of American Television. Durham and London: Duke University Press.

Hardmeier, Sibylle and Anita Klöti (2004) Doing gender in der Wahlkampfkommunikation [Doing in Gender in the Election Communication]. Frauenfrage 2.
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Heldman, Caroline, Susan Carroll and Stephanie Olson (2000) Gender differences in print media coverage of presidential candidates: Elizabeth Dole’s bid for the Republican nomination.
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Hitchon, Jacqueline, Chingching Chang and Rhonda Harris (1997) Should women emote? Perceptual bias and opinion change in response to political ads for candidates of different genders. Political Communication 14, 49-69.

Italy (2004) Mass media and the redistribution of power. Fondazione Giacomo Brodolini. Report for the project “Mass media in the (re)distribution of power” funded by the European Union in terms of the Community Framework Strategy on Gender Equality (2001-2005).
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Jamieson, Kathleen (1995) Beyond the Double Bind: Women and Leadership. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kahn, Kim F. (1991) Women candidates in the news: An examination of gender differences in U.S. Senate campaign coverage" Public Opinion Quarterly 55(2), 180-200.

Kahn, Kim F. and Goldenberg, E. N. (1991) Women candidates in the news: An examination of gender differences in U.S. Senate campaign coverage. Public Opinion Quarterly 55, 180-199.

Kahn, Kim (1992) Does being male help? An investigation of the effects of candidate gender and campaign coverage on evaluations of U.S. Senate candidates. The Journal of Politics, 54, 497-517.

Kahn, Kim. F. (1994) The distorted mirror: Press coverage of women candidates for statewide office. Journal of Politics 56, 154-173.

Kahn, Kim. F. and A. Gordon (1997) How women campaign for the U.S. Senate: substance and strategy. In P. Norris (ed) Women, Media and Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 59-76.

Langer, John (1998) Tabloid Television. Popular Journalism and the ”Other News”. London: Routledge.

Latvia (2004) The role of mass media in the (re)distribution of power. Center for Gender Studies, University of Latvia. Report for the project “Mass media in the (re)distribution of power” funded by the European Union in terms of the Community Framework Strategy on Gender Equality (2001-2005).
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Lawrence, Carmen (2002) Women and influence. The Age.
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Lemish, Dafna and C.E. Tidhar (1999) Still marginal: women in Israel’s 1996 television election campaign. Sex Roles 41, 389-412.

Lupton, Deborah (1998) The Emotional Self. A Sociocultural Exploration. London: Sage
Macdonald, Myra (2000) Rethinking personalization in current affairs journalism. In C. Sparks & J. Tulloch (eds.), Tabloid Tales. Global Debates over Media Standards. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Meijer Costera, Irene (2001) The public quality of popular journalism: developing a normative framework. Journalism Studies 2, 189 – 205.

Moustgaard, Ulrikke (2004) The handbag, the witch and the blue-eyed blondes: Mass media in (re)distribution of power. Report for the project “Mass media in the (re)distribution of power” funded by the EU in terms of the Community Framework Strategy on Gender Equality (2001-2005).
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Mulgan, Geoff (1990) The Question of Quality.  London: BFI Publishing.

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Ramonet, Ignacio (2001) La Tyrannie de la communication [The Tyranny of the Communication]. Paris: Éditions Galilée.

Rettich, Markus (2004) Medienanalyse der Präsidentensuche: Casting Show mit “Horst Wer” und “Gesine Unbekannt” [Media Analysis of the Search for President]. Politiek & Kommunikation, Mai 2004.

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Sparks, Colin (2000) The panic over tabloid news. In C. Sparks & J. Tulloch (eds.), Tabloid Tales. Global Debates over Media Standards. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

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Tomlinson, John (1997) And besides, the wench is dead: media scandals and the globalization of communication. In Lull, J. & Hinerma, S. (eds.) Media Scandals: Morality and Desire in the Popular Culture Marketplace. London: Polity Press. 

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Van Dijck, Bernadette (2002) Screening gender: Gender portrayal and programme making routines.  United Nations, Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW), Expert Group Meeting on “Participation and access of women to the media, and the impact of media on, and its use as an instrument for the advancement and empowerment of women”, Beirut, Lebanon, 12-15 November 2002.
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Van Zoonen, Liesbet (1998) A day at the zoo: Politicians, pigs and popular culture. Media, Culture and Society 20(2),183-200.

Van Zoonen, Liesbet (2005) Entertaining the Citizen. When Politics and Popular Culture Convergence. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Wierstra, Roelien (2003) Borsten, Billen, Balkenende. Bureau Beeldvorming en Diversiteit [Breasts, Butts, Balkanende].
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